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Blended Modeling in Commercial and Open-source Model-Driven Software Engineering Tools: A Systematic Study


István Dávid , Malvina Latifaj, Jakob Pietron , Weixing Zhang , Federico Ciccozzi, Ivano Malavolta , Alexander Raschke , Jan-Philipp Steghöfer , Regina Hebig

Publication Type:

Journal article


Software and Systems Modeling


Blended modeling aims to improve the user experience of modeling activities by prioritizing the seamless interaction with models through multiple notations over the consistency of the models. Inconsistency tolerance, thus, becomes an important aspect in such settings. To understand the potential of current commercial and open-source modeling tools to support blended modeling, we have designed and carried out a systematic study. We identify challenges and opportunities in the tooling aspect of blended modeling. Specifically, we investigate the user-facing and implementation-related characteristics of existing modeling tools that already support multiple types of notations and map their support for other blended aspects, such as inconsistency tolerance, and elevated user experience. For the sake of completeness, we have conducted a multivocal study, encompassing an academic review, and grey literature review. We have reviewed nearly 5000 academic papers and nearly 1500 entries of grey literature. We have identified 133 candidate tools, and eventually selected 26 of them to represent the current spectrum of modeling tools.


author = {Istv{\'a}n D{\'a}vid and Malvina Latifaj and Jakob Pietron and Weixing Zhang and Federico Ciccozzi and Ivano Malavolta and Alexander Raschke and Jan-Philipp Stegh{\"o}fer and Regina Hebig},
title = {Blended Modeling in Commercial and Open-source Model-Driven Software Engineering Tools: A Systematic Study},
pages = {1--33},
month = {April},
year = {2022},
journal = {Software and Systems Modeling},
url = {}