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Structured Information Retrieval of Security Ontologies


Publication Type:



Security ontologies have been created to facilitate the organization and management of knowledge in the security domain. It is a challenge to compare and evaluate how these ontologies relate to one another due to their size, structure, level of expressiveness, and complexity. Ontologies differ in both language and ontological levels, which present obstacles that can lead to errors and inconsistencies in comparisons and alignment attempts. Furthermore, many concepts associated with existing security ontologies have not been fully expounded upon and do not fully comply with security standards. The standards ensure a common understanding of concepts and definitions.In this study, we address these deficiencies by performing a systematic literature review of existing security ontologies to identify core concepts and relationships. The main goal of the systematic literature review is to identify core concepts and relationships that are used to capture security issues. These concepts and relationships are further analyzed and mapped to five security standards (i.e., NIST SP 800-160, NIST SP 800-30 rev.1, NIST SP 800-27 rev.A, ISO/IEC 27001 and NISTIR 8053). The contribution of this paper is a proposal of core concepts and relationships that complies with the above mentioned standards and allow to build a new security ontology.


author = {Malina Adach and Kaj H{\"a}nninen and Kristina Lundqvist},
title = {Structured Information Retrieval of Security Ontologies},
month = {October},
year = {2022},
url = {}