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Evaluating Graphical User Interfaces for Handling Latency in Remote Crane Operation



Research group:

Publication Type:

Conference/Workshop Paper


36th International BCS Human-Computer Interaction Conference


BCS Learning & Development




Due to safety and productivity concerns, there are newer cranes that can be remotely controlled by operators from a control room. However, as operators and their cranes are located separately, the communication between operators and their cranes is not free from time delay or latency. The presence of high latency could not only affect operators’ capability to work productively and safely, but could also affect their wellbeing due to the feeling of discomfort. In this paper, we propose two types of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) that could support operators to perform their work in the presence of latency. The first GUI visualizes how the crane will move based on the user’s input as if the latency is not present, while the second GUI visualizes what kind of inputs that are on being executed. We involved 20 participants in an experiment, where they had to move containers while using either of the GUIs and without using any of our GUIs under the conditions with three latency rates: 0 ms, 500 ms, and 800 ms. However, the results suggest that none of the proposed GUIs were significantly better than the others in terms of performance and experience.


author = {Theodor Fahl{\'e}n and Taufik Akbar Sitompul and Rikard Lindell},
title = {Evaluating Graphical User Interfaces for Handling Latency in Remote Crane Operation},
pages = {179--188},
month = {August},
year = {2023},
booktitle = {36th International BCS Human-Computer Interaction Conference},
publisher = {BCS Learning {\&} Development},
url = {}