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Fungal Minds


Andrew Adamatzky et al. , Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic

Publication Type:

Book chapter


Fungal Machines





Fungal organisms can perceive the outer world in a way similar to what animals sense. Does that mean that they have full awareness of their environment and themselves? Is a fungus a conscious entity? In laboratory experiments we found that fungi produce patterns of electrical activity, similar to neurons. There are low and high frequency oscillations and convoys of spike trains. The neural-like electrical activity is yet another manifestation of the fungal intelligence. We discuss fungal cognitive capabilities and intelligence in evolutionary perspective, and question whether fungi are conscious and what does fungal consciousness mean, considering their exhibiting of complex behaviours, a wide spectrum of sensory abilities, learning, memory and decision making. We overview experimental evidences of consciousness found in fungi. Our conclusions allow us to give a positive answer to the important research questions of fungal cognition, intelligence and forms of consciousness.


@incollection{Adamatzky et al.6926,
author = {Andrew Adamatzky et al. and Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic},
title = {Fungal Minds},
isbn = {978-3-031-38336-6},
editor = {A. Adamatzky},
volume = {47},
pages = {409--422},
month = {September},
year = {2023},
booktitle = {Fungal Machines},
publisher = {Springer},
url = {}