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Robust Distance-Based Watermarking for Digital Image



Amir Stefan Abdul-Ahad , Baran Çürüklü, Waleed A Mahmoud

Research group:

Publication Type:

Conference/Workshop Paper


International Conference on Security and Management (SAM’08)


In this paper, an algorithm is developed to invisibly watermark a cover object (color image) using watermark object (iconic image). The algorithm is based on the distances among the addresses of values of the cover object. These distances use to make the embedding. The order of manipulating these distances are specified by the values of the watermark data which is dealt with serially. The algorithm serves and achieves self encryption key. Each watermark object has its unique pattern of distances at different possible lengths of distance bits. This enhances the complexity of sequential embedding. The algorithm is tested using direct and single level and double level of Two-Dimensional Discrete Wavelet Transform (2D DWT) embeddings. Two important issues are addressed. Firstly is to achieve a high Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). The ratio was found to increase with an increasing of distance bits. Secondly is that the watermarked object retains the same properties of cover object. The algorithm shows resisting and withstanding against the most important attacks. Some of these include the


author = {Amir Stefan Abdul-Ahad and Baran {\c{C}}{\"u}r{\"u}kl{\"u} and Waleed A Mahmoud},
title = {Robust Distance-Based Watermarking for Digital Image},
pages = {404--409},
month = {July},
year = {2008},
booktitle = {International Conference on Security and Management (SAM’08)},
url = {}