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Towards a Two-layer Framework for Verifying Autonomous Vehicles


Publication Type:

Conference/Workshop Paper


11th Annual NASA Formal Methods Symposium


Autonomous vehicles rely heavily on intelligent algorithms for path planning and collision avoidance, and their functionality and dependability could be ensured through formal verification. To facilitate the verification, it is beneficial to decouple the static high-level planning from the dynamic functions like collision avoidance. In this paper, we propose a conceptual two-layer framework for verifying autonomous vehicles, which consists of a static layer and a dynamic layer. We focus concretely on modeling and verifying the dynamic layer using hybrid automata and UPPAAL SMC, where a continuous movement of the vehicle as well as collision avoidance via a dipole flow field algorithm are considered. This framework achieves decoupling by separating the verification of the vehicle's autonomous path planning from that of the vehicle autonomous operation in a continuous dynamic environment. To simplify the modeling process, we propose a pattern-based design method, where patterns are expressed as hybrid automata. We demonstrate the applicability of the dynamic layer of our framework on an industrial prototype of an autonomous wheel loader.


author = {Rong Gu and Raluca Marinescu and Cristina Seceleanu and Kristina Lundqvist},
title = {Towards a Two-layer Framework for Verifying Autonomous Vehicles},
month = {May},
year = {2019},
booktitle = {11th Annual NASA Formal Methods Symposium},
url = {}