You are required to read and agree to the below before accessing a full-text version of an article in the IDE article repository.

The full-text document you are about to access is subject to national and international copyright laws. In most cases (but not necessarily all) the consequence is that personal use is allowed given that the copyright owner is duly acknowledged and respected. All other use (typically) require an explicit permission (often in writing) by the copyright owner.

For the reports in this repository we specifically note that

  • the use of articles under IEEE copyright is governed by the IEEE copyright policy (available at
  • the use of articles under ACM copyright is governed by the ACM copyright policy (available at
  • technical reports and other articles issued by M‰lardalen University is free for personal use. For other use, the explicit consent of the authors is required
  • in other cases, please contact the copyright owner for detailed information

By accepting I agree to acknowledge and respect the rights of the copyright owner of the document I am about to access.

If you are in doubt, feel free to contact

Formally Assured Intelligent Systems for Enhanced Ambient Assisted Living Support


Publication Type:

Licentiate Thesis


Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) solutions are aimed to assist the elderly in their independent and safe living. During the last decade, the AAL field has witnessed a significant development due to advancements in Information and Communication Technologies, Ubiquitous Computing and Internet of Things. However, a closer look at the existing AAL solutions shows that these improvements are used mostly to deliver one or a few functions mainly of the same type (e.g. health monitoring functions). There are comparatively fewer initiatives that integrate different kinds of AAL functionalities, such as fall detection, reminders, fire alarms, etc., besides health monitoring, into a common framework, with intelligent decision-making that can thereby offer enhanced reasoning by combining multiple events. To address this shortage, in this thesis, we propose two different categories of AAL architecture frameworks onto which different functionalities, chosen based on user preferences, can be integrated. One of them follows a centralized approach, using an intelligent Decision Support System (DSS), and the other, follows a truly distributed approach, involving multiple intelligent agents. The centralized architecture is our initial choice, due to its ease of development by combining multiple functionalities with a centralized DSS that can assess the dependency between multiple events in real time. While easy to develop, our centralized solution suffers from the well-known single point of failure, which we remove by adding a redundant DSS. Nevertheless, the scalability, flexibility, multiple user accesses, and potential self-healing capability of the centralized solution are hard to achieve, therefore we also propose a distributed, agent- based architecture as a second solution, to provide the community with two different AAL solutions that can be applied depending on needs and available resources. Both solutions are to be used in safety-critical applications, therefore their design-time assurance, that is, providing a guarantee that they meet functional requirements and deliver the needed quality-of-service, is beneficial.Our first solution is a generic architecture that follows the design of many commercial AAL solutions with sensors, a data collector, DSS, security and privacy, database (DB) systems, user interfaces (UI), and cloud computing support. We represent this architecture in the Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) via a set of component patterns that we propose. The advantage of using patterns is that they are easily re-usable when building specific AAL architectures. Our patterns describe the behavior of the components in the Behavioral Annex of AADL, and the error behavior in AADL’s Error Annex. We also show various instantiations of our generic model that can be developed based on user requirements. To formally assure these solutions against functional, timing and reliability requirements, we show how we can employ exhaustive model checking using the state-of-art model checker, UP- PAAL, and also statistical model-checking techniques with UPPAAL SMC, an extension of the UPPAAL model checker for stochastic systems, which can be employed in cases when exhaustive verification does not scale. The second proposed architecture is an agent-based architecture for AAL systems, where agents are intelligent entities capable of communicating with each other in order to decide on an action to take. Therefore, the decision support is now distributed among agents and can be used by multiple users distributed across multiple locations. Due to the fact that this solution requires describing agents and their interaction, the existing core AADL does not suffice as an architectural framework. Hence, we propose an extension to the core AADL language - The Agent Annex, with formal semantics as Stochastic Transition Systems, which allows us to specify probabilistic, non-deterministic and real-time AAL system behaviors. In order to formally assure our multi-agent system, we employ the state-of-art probabilistic model checker PRISM, which allows us to perform probabilistic yet exhaustive verification.As a final contribution, we also present a small-scale validation of an architecture of the first category, with end users from three countries (Romania, Poland, Denmark). This work has been carried out with partners from the mentioned countries.Our work in this thesis paves the way towards the development of user- centered, intelligent ambient assisted living solutions with ensured quality of service.


author = {Ashalatha Kunnappilly},
title = {Formally Assured Intelligent Systems for Enhanced Ambient Assisted Living Support},
month = {April},
year = {2019},
url = {}