You are required to read and agree to the below before accessing a full-text version of an article in the IDE article repository.

The full-text document you are about to access is subject to national and international copyright laws. In most cases (but not necessarily all) the consequence is that personal use is allowed given that the copyright owner is duly acknowledged and respected. All other use (typically) require an explicit permission (often in writing) by the copyright owner.

For the reports in this repository we specifically note that

  • the use of articles under IEEE copyright is governed by the IEEE copyright policy (available at
  • the use of articles under ACM copyright is governed by the ACM copyright policy (available at
  • technical reports and other articles issued by M‰lardalen University is free for personal use. For other use, the explicit consent of the authors is required
  • in other cases, please contact the copyright owner for detailed information

By accepting I agree to acknowledge and respect the rights of the copyright owner of the document I am about to access.

If you are in doubt, feel free to contact

HERO-ML Specification


Publication Type:

Report - MRTC


Mälardalen Real-Time Research Centre, Mälardalen University




HERO-ML is a data-parallel array language, on very high level, which is intended to specify data parallel algorithms in a concise and platform-independent way. The goal is to support the software development for heterogeneous systems with different kinds of parallel numerical accelerators, where programs tend to be very platform-specific and difficult to develop. Here we give a specification of HERO-ML including an abstract syntax, and an operational semantics. The part of the operational semantics that deals with arrays is in the form of sequential pseudocode, and can be seen as a specification of a reference implementation in a high-level intermediate format. Such a reference implementation exists, and we give a brief description of it.


author = {Bj{\"o}rn Lisper and Linus K{\"a}llberg},
title = {HERO-ML Specification},
month = {February},
year = {2023},
publisher = {M{\"a}lardalen Real-Time Research Centre, M{\"a}lardalen University},
url = {}