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A Runtime Verification based Concurrency Bug Detector for FreeRTOS Embedded Software

Publication Type:

Journal article


Journal of IEEE Access


When developing embedded software, detecting bugs as early as possible is important. Concurrency bugs is a particularly problematic class of bugs. Several methods have been proposed to detect such bugs, but few of these methods have been implemented in tools and even fewer have been evaluated systematically using realistic software logs. In this paper we present a novel method and tool called DeCoB, which uses runtime verification to detect concurrency bugs in embedded software. DeCoB is tailored for the open source real-time operating system FreeRTOS, and detects and diagnoses concurrency bugs, such as deadlock, starvation, and suspension-based-locking, by analysing runtime traces provided by the Tracealyzer tool, i.e., without debugging and tracing the source code. This paper presents the implementation of the tool in detail, as well as its functional architecture, together with illustrations of its use in practice. The DeCoB tool can be used during program testing for identifying concurrency bugs using information about the software executions. We experimentally evaluate the DeCoB tool using realistic FreeRTOS test scenarios and 21726 automatically generated logs using our own generator based on the UPPAAL model checker. Our results suggest that the DeCoB tool is effective at detecting whether a diverse set of logs contains concurrency bugs.


author = {Sara Abbaspour and Eduard Paul Enoiu and Adnan Causevic and Daniel Sundmark and Hans Hansson},
title = {A Runtime Verification based Concurrency Bug Detector for FreeRTOS Embedded Software},
volume = {2},
number = {1},
pages = {1--20},
journal = {Journal of IEEE Access},
url = {}