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CoSiWiNeT: A Clock Synchronization Algorithm for Wide Area IIoT Network

Research group:

Publication Type:

Journal article


Applied Sciences - IoT-Enhancing the Industrial World


Recent advances in the industrial internet of things (IIoT) and cyber–physical systems drive Industry 4.0 and have led to remote monitoring and control applications that require factories to be connected to remote sites over wide area networks (WAN). The adequate performance of remote applications depends on the use of a clock synchronization scheme. Packet delay variations adversely impact the clock synchronization performance. This impact is significant in WAN as it comprises wired and wireless segments belonging to public and private networks, and such heterogeneity results in inconsistent delays. Highly accurate, hardware–based time synchronization solutions, global positioning system (GPS), and precision time protocol (PTP) are not preferred in WAN due to cost, environmental effects, hardware failure modes, and reliability issues. As a software–based network time protocol (NTP) overcomes these challenges but lacks accuracy, the authors propose a software–based clock synchronization method, called CoSiWiNeT, based on the random sample consensus (RANSAC) algorithm that uses an iterative technique to estimate a correct offset from observed noisy data. To evaluate the algorithm’s performance, measurements captured in a WAN deployed within two cities were used in the simulation. The results show that the performance of the new algorithm matches well with NTP and state–of–the–art methods in good network conditions; however, it outperforms them in degrading network scenarios.


author = {Rahul Nandkumar Gore and Elena Lisova and Johan {\AA}kerberg and Mats Bj{\"o}rkman},
title = {CoSiWiNeT: A Clock Synchronization Algorithm for Wide Area IIoT Network},
volume = {11(24)},
number = {11985},
pages = {11985--12002},
month = {December},
year = {2021},
journal = {Applied Sciences - IoT-Enhancing the Industrial World},
url = {}