You are required to read and agree to the below before accessing a full-text version of an article in the IDE article repository.

The full-text document you are about to access is subject to national and international copyright laws. In most cases (but not necessarily all) the consequence is that personal use is allowed given that the copyright owner is duly acknowledged and respected. All other use (typically) require an explicit permission (often in writing) by the copyright owner.

For the reports in this repository we specifically note that

  • the use of articles under IEEE copyright is governed by the IEEE copyright policy (available at
  • the use of articles under ACM copyright is governed by the ACM copyright policy (available at
  • technical reports and other articles issued by M‰lardalen University is free for personal use. For other use, the explicit consent of the authors is required
  • in other cases, please contact the copyright owner for detailed information

By accepting I agree to acknowledge and respect the rights of the copyright owner of the document I am about to access.

If you are in doubt, feel free to contact

Towards a holistic approach to security validation of construction machinery through HIL systems


Publication Type:

Conference/Workshop Paper


28th International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation




The construction industry is increasingly equipping its machinery with sophisticated embedded systems and modern connectivity. Technology advancements in connected safety-critical systems are complex, with cyber-security becoming a more critical factor. Due to interdependencies and network connectivity, attack surfaces and vulnerabilities have increased significantly. Consequently, it is imperative to perform a risk assessment and implement robust security testing methods in order to prevent cyber-attacks on machinery segments. This paper presents a method for identifying potential security threats that also affect machine functional safety, facilitated by identifying threats in the threat modeling process and analyzing safety-security synergies. By identifying such risks, attack scenarios are created to simulate cyber-attacks and create test cases for validation. This approach integrates security testing into the current testing process by using penetration testing tools and utilizing a Hardware-in-the-Loop(HIL) test setup and it is verified with a simulated Denial of Service attack over a CAN network


author = {Sheela Hariharan and Andreas Ers{\'e}us and Thomas Nolte and Alessandro Papadopoulos},
title = {Towards a holistic approach to security validation of construction machinery through HIL systems},
pages = {1--8},
month = {September},
year = {2023},
booktitle = {28th International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation},
url = {}