You are required to read and agree to the below before accessing a full-text version of an article in the IDE article repository.

The full-text document you are about to access is subject to national and international copyright laws. In most cases (but not necessarily all) the consequence is that personal use is allowed given that the copyright owner is duly acknowledged and respected. All other use (typically) require an explicit permission (often in writing) by the copyright owner.

For the reports in this repository we specifically note that

  • the use of articles under IEEE copyright is governed by the IEEE copyright policy (available at
  • the use of articles under ACM copyright is governed by the ACM copyright policy (available at
  • technical reports and other articles issued by M‰lardalen University is free for personal use. For other use, the explicit consent of the authors is required
  • in other cases, please contact the copyright owner for detailed information

By accepting I agree to acknowledge and respect the rights of the copyright owner of the document I am about to access.

If you are in doubt, feel free to contact

From Natural Language Requirements to Passive Test Cases using Guarded Assertions



Daniel Flemström, Eduard Paul Enoiu, Wasif Afzal, Daniel Sundmark, Thomas Gustafsson , Avenir Kobetski


acceptance rate 19%.

Publication Type:

Conference/Workshop Paper


The 18th IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security


In large-scale embedded system development, requirements are often expressed in natural language. Translating these requirements to executable test cases, while keeping the test cases and requirements aligned, is a challenging task. While such a transformation typically requires extensive domain knowledge, we show that a systematic process in combination with passive testing would facilitate the translation as well as linking the requirements to tests. Passive testing approaches observe the behavior of the system and test their correctness without interfering with the normal behavior. We use a specific approach to passive testing: guarded assertions (G/A). This paper presents a method for transforming system requirements expressed in natural language into G/As. We further present a proof of concept evaluation, performed at Bombardier Transportation Sweden AB, in which we show how the process would be used, together with practical advice of the reasoning behind the translation steps.


author = {Daniel Flemstr{\"o}m and Eduard Paul Enoiu and Wasif Afzal and Daniel Sundmark and Thomas Gustafsson and Avenir Kobetski},
title = {From Natural Language Requirements to Passive Test Cases using Guarded Assertions},
note = {acceptance rate 19{\%}.},
month = {July},
year = {2018},
booktitle = {The 18th IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security },
url = {}