You are required to read and agree to the below before accessing a full-text version of an article in the IDE article repository.

The full-text document you are about to access is subject to national and international copyright laws. In most cases (but not necessarily all) the consequence is that personal use is allowed given that the copyright owner is duly acknowledged and respected. All other use (typically) require an explicit permission (often in writing) by the copyright owner.

For the reports in this repository we specifically note that

  • the use of articles under IEEE copyright is governed by the IEEE copyright policy (available at
  • the use of articles under ACM copyright is governed by the ACM copyright policy (available at
  • technical reports and other articles issued by M‰lardalen University is free for personal use. For other use, the explicit consent of the authors is required
  • in other cases, please contact the copyright owner for detailed information

By accepting I agree to acknowledge and respect the rights of the copyright owner of the document I am about to access.

If you are in doubt, feel free to contact

Second-Order Learning with Grounding Alignment: A Multimodal Reasoning Approach to Handle Unlabelled Data

Publication Type:

Conference/Workshop Paper


16th International Conference Agents and Artificial Intelligence


Multimodal machine learning is a critical aspect in the development and advancement of AI systems. How- ever, it encounters significant challenges while working with multimodal data, where one of the major issues is dealing with unlabelled multimodal data, which can hinder effective analysis. To address the challenge, this paper proposes a multimodal reasoning approach adopting second-order learning, incorporating ground- ing alignment and semi-supervised learning methods. The proposed approach illustrates using unlabelled vehicular telemetry data. During the process, features were extracted from unlabelled telemetry data using an autoencoder and then clustered and aligned with true labels of neurophysiological data to create labelled and unlabelled datasets. In the semi-supervised approach, the Random Forest (RF) and eXtreme Gradient Boost- ing (XGBoost) algorithms are applied to the labelled dataset, achieving a test accuracy of over 97%. These algorithms are then used to predict labels for the unlabelled dataset, which is later added to the labelled dataset to retrain the model. With the additional prior labelled data, both algorithms achieved a 99% test accuracy. Confidence in predictions for unlabelled data was validated using counting samples based on the prediction score and Bayesian probability. RF and XGBoost scored 91.26% and 97.87% in counting samples and 98.67% and 99.77% in Bayesian probability, respectively


author = {Arnab Barua and Mobyen Uddin Ahmed and Shaibal Barua and Shahina Begum and Andrea Giorgi},
title = {Second-Order Learning with Grounding Alignment: A Multimodal Reasoning Approach to Handle Unlabelled Data},
month = {February},
year = {2024},
booktitle = {16th International Conference Agents and Artificial Intelligence},
url = {}