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Conceptual Design and Evaluation of Windshield Displays for Excavators



This article is also available without any restriction at MDPI via

Research group:

Publication Type:

Journal article


Multimodal Technologies and Interaction





This paper investigates the possible visualization using transparent displays, which could be placed on the excavator’s windshield. This way, the information could be presented closer to operators’ line of sight, without fully obstructing their view. Therefore, excavator operators could acquire the supportive information provided by the machine without diverting their attention from operational areas. To ensure that there is a match between the supportive information and operators’ contextual needs, we conducted four different activities as parts of our design process. Firstly, we looked at four relevant safety guidelines to determine which information is essential to perform safe operations. Secondly, we reviewed all commercially available technologies to discover their suitability in the excavator context. Thirdly, we conducted a design workshop to generate ideas on how the essential information should look like and behave based on the performed operation and the chosen available technology. Fourthly, we interviewed seven excavator operators to test their understanding and obtain their feedback on the proposed visualization concepts. The results indicated that four out of six visualization concepts that we proposed could be understood easily by the operators and we also revised them to better suit the operators’ way of thinking. All the operators also positively perceived this approach, since all of them included at least three visualization concepts to be presented on the windshield.


author = {Taufik Akbar Sitompul and Markus Wallmyr and Rikard Lindell},
title = {Conceptual Design and Evaluation of Windshield Displays for Excavators},
note = {This article is also available without any restriction at MDPI via},
month = {November},
year = {2020},
journal = {Multimodal Technologies and Interaction},
publisher = {MDPI},
url = {}