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Interplay of Human and AI Solvers on a Planning Problem


Publication Type:

Conference/Workshop Paper


2023 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC)




With the rapidly growing use of Multi-Agent Systems (MASs), which can exponentially increase the system complexity, the problem of planning a mission for MASs became more intricate. In some MASs, human operators are still involved in various decision-making processes, including manual mission planning, which can be an ineffective approach for any non-trivial problem. Mission planning and re-planning can be represented as a combinatorial optimization problem. Computing a solution to these types of problems is notoriously difficult and not scalable, posing a challenge even to cutting-edge solvers. As time is usually considered an essential resource in MASs, automated solvers have a limited time to provide a solution. The downside of this approach is that it can take a substantial amount of time for the automated solver to provide a sub-optimal solution. In this work, we are interested in the interplay between a human operator and an automated solver and whether it is more efficient to let a human or an automated solver handle the planning and re-planning problems, or if the combination of the two is a better approach. We thus propose an experimental setup to evaluate the effect of having a human operator included in the mission planning and re-planning process. Our tests are performed on a series of instances with gradually increasing complexity and involve a group of human operators and a metaheuristic solver based on a genetic algorithm. We measure the effect of the interplay on both the quality and structure of the output solutions. Our results show that the best setup is to let the operator come up with a few solutions, before letting the solver improve them.


@inproceedings{Ameri E.6802,
author = {Afshin Ameri E. and Branko Miloradovic and Baran {\c{C}}{\"u}r{\"u}kl{\"u} and Alessandro Papadopoulos and Mikael Ekstr{\"o}m and Johann Dreo},
title = {Interplay of Human and AI Solvers on a Planning Problem},
pages = {3166--3173},
month = {October},
year = {2023},
booktitle = {2023 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC)},
url = {}